During neurofeedback training, individuals learn self-regulation skills of specific brainwave patterns by receiving positive feedback on brain activity changes in the desired direction. 1

Different varieties of Neurofeedback protocols have been developed in order to target various mental states and associated behaviors. There are two basic types of neurofeedback protocols which are significant: frequency band training and training of slow cortical potentials (SCPs).1

Slow cortical potentials are event-related potential reactions of the brain to external or internal stimulations and are tied into specific events and specific time.2

Since SCP training allows control over the brain’s activity, the individual who learns to control SCPs is able to gather the energy for information processing in a specific way, depending on the situation. For example, people who suffer from migraine attacks or seizures can learn to control the activation of slow cortical potentials to reduce the frequency of the attacks.2

The first symptoms that are improved by learning to self-control the slow cortical potentials are sleep disorders and headaches. Other benefits of SCP training are improvement in concentration, memory performance, stamina, and motor skills coordination. These improvements are evident to some extent after about 12-15 training session. After 40 sessions, the behavior has often changed significantly.2

The results of the reviewed studies of slow cortical potentials have shown consistent behavioral improvements.  In addition, SCP training in healthy adults indicates that it may lead to functional changes in neuronal networks operating cognitive preparation even after a limited number of sessions.3 Children and adults feel a stability in their emotional state, which results in more positive interactions with others.2

1. Studer Petra, Kratz Oliver, Gevensleben Holger, Rothenberger Aribert, Moll Gunther H., Hautzinger Martin, Heinrich
Hartmut. Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes and motor system excitability. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. V8. 2014
2. Karl-Michael Haus, Carla Held, Axel Kowalski, Andreas Krombholz, Manfred Nowak. (2013) Praxisbuch Biofeedback und Neurofeedback, 2013. Springer. P 63-70
3. Kerstin Mayer, Sarah N. Wyckoff, Ute Strehl,(2012). One Size Fits All? Slow Cortical Potentials Neurofeedback: A Review, Journal of Attention Disorders 17(5) 393–409 © 2012 SAGE Publications Reprints and permissions: Permissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1087054712468053

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